Yogyakarta or simply Yogya, is one of the foremost cultural centers of Java. Located at the foot of the active Merapi volcano, Yogyakarta was in the 16th and 17th centuries the seat of the mighty Javanese empire of Mataram., from which present day Yogyakarta has inherited the best of traditions. The city itself has a special charm which seldom fails to captivate the visitor.
This province is one of the most densely populated areas of Indonesia. The city came into being in 1755, after the division of Mataram into the Sultanates of Yogyakarta and Surakarta (Solo). Gamelan, classical and contemporary Javanese dances, the wayang kulit leather puppet theater and other expressions of traditional art will keep the visitor spellbound. Local craftsmen excel in the arts of batiks, silver and leather work. The Sultan's palace is the hub of Yogya's traditional life and despite the advance of modernity, it still emanates the spirit of refinement which has been the hallmark of Yogya's art for centuries. Next to the traditional, contemporary art has found fertile soil in Yogya's culture oriented society. ASRI, the Academy of Fine Arts is the center of arts and Yogya itself has given its name to an important school of modern painting in Indonesia, perhaps best personified by the famed Indonesian impressionist, the late Affandi.
Yogya is often called the main gateway to the center of Java where it is geographically located. It stretches from Mount Merapi to the Indian Ocean. There is daily air service to Yogya from Jakarta, Surabaya and Bali as well as regular train service and easy accessibility by road.
Yogyakarta features a tropical monsoon climate. The city features a lengthy wet season running from October until June and a short dry season that only covers the months of July, August and September. The city averages roughly 2200 mm of precipitation annually. Yogyakarta experiences particularly heavy rainfall from November through April. Temperatures remain relatively constant throughout the course of the year, with average high temperatures at around 30 degrees Celsius and average lows at around 22 degrees Celsius.
Because of its proximity to world famous Borobudur and Prambanan temples, also because having unique Javanese court Kraton culture of Kraton Yogyakarta, Yogyakarta has become the second most important tourist destination in Indonesia after Bali. Most tourists come to Yogyakarta as an accommodation base on visiting Borobudur and Prambanan and also for its strong Javanese culture and tradition. This makes it prominent among other Javanese cities, along with Surakarta or Solo, a city lying about 64 km to the east, Yogyakarta is the centre of Javanese culture.
Yogyakarta is served by Adisucipto International Airport which connects the city with some other major cities in Indonesia, such as Jakarta, Surabaya, Denpasar, Makassar, Balikpapan, Banjarmasin, and Pontianak. It also connects the city with Singapore (operated by Indonesia AirAsia) and Kuala Lumpur (operated by AirAsia).
The city is located on one of the two major railway lines across Java between Jakarta / Bandung and Surabaya. It has two passenger railway stations, Tugu railway station which serves business and executive class trains, and Lempuyangan Station which serves economy class trains. Both stations are located in the heart of the city. Commuter train in Yogyakarta is Prambanan Ekspress, also known as Prameks, this train goes from Lempuyangan Station to Solo Balapan Station at Surakarta (Solo) (East of Yogyakarta), Kutoharjo Station at Kutoharjo (West of Yogyakarta). The other commuter train is Madiun Jaya (Madiun-Lempuyangan), and Joglosemar (Semarang-Lempuyangan).
The city has an extensive system of public city buses, and is a major destination for inter-city buses to elsewhere on Java or Bali, as well as taxis, andongs, and becaks. Motorbikes are by far the most commonly used personal transportation, but an increasing number of residents own automobiles. Yogyakarta also have a highway named Ringroad. An Overpass including Janti Overpass, and Lempuyangan Overpass.
Starting from early 2008, the city has operated a bus rapid transit system called Trans Jogja, also known as "TJ" (Indonesian), Abbervation from "T" for 'Trans', and "J" for 'Jogja'. This system is modeled after TransJakarta. But unlike Trans Jakarta, there is no particular lane for Trans Jogja buses, they run on main streets. Currently there are six lines of Trans Jogja service, with routes throughout main streets of Yogyakarta, which some overlap one another. The lines extend from Jombor bus station in the north as far as Giwangan main bus terminal in the south and Prambanan bus shelter in the east via Adisucipto International Airport. Trans Jogja has now become a new trademark of Yogyakarta and frequently used by local citizens and tourists alike.
In a recent forum discussion on long-term transportation plans in Yogyakarta held at Universitas Gadjah Mada, the head of the Yogyakarta region transportation master plan team, Prof Ahmad Munawar, said that in 2016 modern transport modes including monorail, aerobus, and tram will begin operating in the city and the region.
The notable hospitals in Yogyakarta including :
- Rumah Sakit Dr. Sardjito (State owned, the largest hospital in Yogyakarta)
- Bethesda Hospital
- Panti Rapih Hospital
- RS PKU Muhammadiyah, located on Jalan KH. Dahlan, and many others.
Sumber : Wikipedia.org