Jakarta /dʒəˈkɑrtə/, officially known as the Special
Capital Region of Jakarta (Indonesian: Daerah Khusus Ibu Kota Jakarta),
is the capital and largest city of Indonesia.
Located on the northwest coast of Java, Jakarta is the country's economic, cultural and political centre, and with a population of 10,187,595 as of November 2011, it is the most populous city in Indonesia and in Southeast Asia, and is the thirteenth most populated city in the world. The official metropolitan area, known as Jabodetabek (a name formed by combining the initial syllables of Jakarta, Bogor, Depok, Tangerang and Bekasi), is the second largest in the world, yet the metropolis's suburbs still continue beyond it. Jakarta is listed as a global city in the 2008 Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network (GaWC) research. and has an area of 661 square kilometres (255 sq mi). This area has a population of well over 28 million,making it one of the world's largest conurbations in terms of number of inhabitants.
In 2011, Jakarta ranked 17th among the world's 200 largest cities, a jump from its 2007 ranking of 171. Jakarta has grown more rapidly than Kuala Lumpur, Beijing and Bangkok. Established in the fourth century, the city became an important trading port for the Kingdom of Sunda. It was the de facto capital of the Dutch East Indies (known as Batavia at that time) and has continued as the capital of Indonesia since the country's independence was declared in 1945.
The city is the seat of the ASEAN Secretariat. Jakarta is served by the Soekarno-Hatta International Airport, Halim Perdanakusuma International Airport, and Tanjung Priok Harbour; it is connected by several intercity and commuter railways, and served by several bus lines running on reserved busways.
Jakarta has a hot and humid climate on the boundary between tropical monsoon (Am) and savanna (Aw) according to the Köppen climate classification system. Despite being located relatively close to the equator, the city has distinct wet and dry seasons. The wet season in Jakarta covers the majority of the year, running from November through June. The remaining four months forms the city's dry season. Located in the western part of Java, Jakarta's wet season rainfall peak is January with average monthly rainfall of 389 millimetres (15.3 in), and its dry season low point is September with a monthly average of 30 millimetres (1.2 in).
The "Betawi" (Orang Betawi, or "people of Batavia") are the descendants of the people living in and around Batavia and recognized as an ethnic group from around the 18th-19th century. The Betawi people are mostly descended from various Southeast-Asian ethnic groups brought or attracted to Batavia to meet labor needs, and include people from different parts of Indonesia, The language and Betawi culture are distinct from those of the Sundanese or Javanese, forming itself as a language island in the surrounding area. The language is mostly based on the East Malay dialect and enriched by loan words from Dutch, Portuguese, Sundanese, Javanese, Chinese, and Arabic. Nowadays, the Jakarta dialect (Bahasa Jakarta), used as a street language by people in Jakarta, is loosely based on the Betawi language. Betawi arts have a low profile in Jakarta, and most Betawi have moved to the suburbs of Jakarta, displaced by new migrants. It is easier to find Java- or Minang-based wedding ceremonies rather than Betawi weddings in Jakarta. It is easier to find Javanese Gamelan instead of Gambang Kromong (a mixture between Betawi and Chinese music) or Tanjidor (a mixture between Betawi and Portuguese music) or Marawis (a mixture between Betawi and Yaman music). However, some festivals such as the Jalan Jaksa Festival or Kemang Festival include efforts to preserve Betawi arts by inviting artists to give performances.
Jakarta has a vast range of food available at hundreds of eating complexes located all over the city, from modest street-side foodstalls and traveling vendors to the high-class expensive restaurants. The traditional Padang restaurants and low-budget Javanese Warteg (Warung Tegal) foodstalls are ubiquitous in the capital. Next to a myriad of selections of Indonesian food and regional specialties from all over Indonesia, there is also international food, especially Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Thai, Indian, American, French, Middle Eastern, and modern fusion food.One of the most popular local dishes in Jakarta is Soto Betawi, which is a cow milk or coconut milk broth with beef tendons, intestines, tripe. The other popular foods include: kerak telor, gado-gado, sate, nasi goreng and kue cucur.
Most of the visitors attracted to Jakarta are domestic tourists from all
over Indonesia. As the gateway of Indonesia, Jakarta often serves as the
stop-over for foreign visitors on their way to Indonesian popular tourist
destinations such as Bali
Other than attracted to monuments, landmarks, and museums around Merdeka square and Jakarta
Old Town, tourist attractions include Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Ragunan
Zoo, Sunda Kelapa old port and the Ancol
Dreamland complex on Jakarta Bay, including Dunia Fantasi theme park, Sea
World, Atlantis Water Adventure, and Gelanggang Samudra.
Tourism is contributing a growing amount of income to the city. In 2012, the tourism sector contributed 2.6 trillion rupiah (US$268.5 million) to the city's total direct income of 17.83 trillion rupiah, a 17.9 per cent increase over 2011. Tourism stakeholders are expecting greater marketing of the Jakarta as a tourism destination.
Sumber : Wikipedia.org